Abstract objects are shapes that can not be tangibly formed, like the fact that the period that you put at the end of a sentence is actually a representation of the point it is suppose to be. A point then, is actually just the absence of marking, and it is made by the space between other marks, or it may be made where two lines meet. A line is made up of multiple points, bordering one another, and the “shortest distance between two points is a straight line” (Leborg 11). Beyond a line, is a surface, which consists of a row of lines. A surface is two-dimensional because it is a point that multiplied in two different directions. Furthermore, volume is made up of multiple surfaces (which of course, are created by lines and points.). Dimensions, are perceived as the height, width, and depth that we see. Anything less or more than three dimensions, we are only able to imagine, not actually perceive. Anything dimension besides 3D is an abstract to the human eye. Format, is the alignment of anything we see, in relation to its limits. Format consists of scale and proportion. To complement several of the concepts I read by Leborg, I found a few online sources, which discussed some of the same ideas. In a blog by Steven Bradley (http://www.vanseodesign.com/web-design/points-dots-lines/) about points, dots, and lines, the idea that positive and negative space create these primary elements of design, is prefaced. Bradley implies that all dots and points have a function or purpose to them, and that the alignment of several dots next to each other (or even just two), can change their characteristics. Since visual hierarchy, a focal point, and therefore dominance, are such sought after design principles in any composition, Bradley explains how dots, points, and lines allow these essentials to appear. To build an attractive design, surfaces and dimensions usually make up the end result/visual format. However, to create two and three-dimensional compositions, we must start with the alignment of points, which can be more complicated when broken down, than we may realize. The idea that contrast, balance, and movement are all created based off of lines and dots also shows us that these principles are essential to understand, in order to create strong design compositions.